Getting Started with LoRa and LoRaWAN Protocols for Low Power, Wide Area Networking of IoT.
According to the LoRa Alliance, Low-Power, Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN) are projected to support a major portion of the billions of devices forecasted for the Internet of Things (IoT). LoRaWAN is designed from the bottom up to optimize LPWANs for battery lifetime, capacity, range, and cost. LoRa and LoRaWAN permit long-range connectivity for the Internet of Things (IoT) devices in different types of industries. According to Wikipedia, LoRaWAN defines the communication protocol and system architecture for the network, while the LoRa physical layer enables the long-range communication link.
Long Range (LoRa), the low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) protocol developed by Semtech, sits at layer 1, the physical layer, of the seven-layer OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection model) of computer networking. The physical layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits over a physical data link connecting network nodes. LoRa uses license-free sub-gigahertz radio frequency (RF) bands, including 433 MHz, 868 MHz (Europe), 915 MHz (Australia and North America), and 923 MHz (Asia). LoRa enables long-range transmissions with low power consumption.
LoRaWAN is a cloud-based medium access control (MAC) sublayer (layer 2) protocol but acts mainly as a network layer (layer 3) protocol for managing communication between LPWAN gateways and end-node devices as a routing protocol, maintained by the LoRa Alliance. The MAC sublayer and the logical link control (LLC) sublayer together make up layer 2, the data link layer, of the OSI model.
LoRaWAN is often cited as having greater than a 10-km-wide coverage area in rural locations. However, according to other sources, it is generally more limited. According to the Electronic Design article, 11 Myths About LoRaWAN, a typical LoRaWAN network range depends on numerous factors-indoor or outdoor gateways, the payload of the message, the antenna used, etc. On average, in an urban environment with an outdoor gateway, you can expect up to 2- to 3-km-wide coverage, while in the rural areas it can reach beyond 5 to 7 km. LoRa’s range depends on the “radio line-of-sight.” Radio waves in the 400 MHz to 900 MHz range may pass through some obstructions, depending on their composition, but will be absorbed or reflected otherwise. This means that the signal can potentially reach as far as the horizon, as long as there are no physical barriers to block it.
Want to learn more about how to get started with LoRa and LoRaWAN Protocols for Low Power, Wide Area Networking of IoT. In this hands-on post, Garry Stafford explores the use of the LoRa and LoRaWAN protocols to transmit and receive sensor data, over a substantial distance, between an IoT device, containing a number of embedded sensors, and an IoT gateway.
You can also checkout an audio version of the post on Soundcloud.